Gemmae in Bryophytes
Gemmae are a means of asexual reproduction found in many bryophytes. Gemmae are 1 to many celled, specially produced clonal plant fragments. Some specific examples of gemmae are illustrated in the table below. The form of the gemmae is often very useful when identifying certain bryophytes. Gemmae are variously dispersed (e.g. by wind, water) and are capable of growing into new plants.
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Rhizoids anchor the gametophyte to the substrate. Rhizoids can be important taxonomic characters. Their presence/absence, color, and papillosity are sometimes used in making identifications.
|Bryidae protonemata||click image to enlarge|